|  e-ISSN: 2757-5772

Volume 2 Issue 1 (June 2021)

Issue Information

Vol 2 Issue 1

Dr. Bora Demir

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/irelt.2020.347



Original Articles

Occupational Stressors of Novice EFL Teachers in Turkey

Dila Bozkurt

pp. 1 - 12   |  DOI: 10.29329/irelt.2020.347.1


This study aims to investigate the occupational stressors that novice EFL teachers encounter, how these stressors affect them, and whether they tend to use resilience strategies or experience burnout symptoms. Within the qualitative research method, the data was collected through semi-structured interviews from three novice EFL teachers. The data were analyzed by coding and categorizing. The findings show that novice EFL teachers experience multiple stressors related to being inexperienced, students, parents, school administrations, lesson preparation, using a second language, preparing more materials, dealing with many skill areas, not being seen as important as other subjects and social stigmas. Also, they tend to use resilience strategies like social support, collaborating, being prepared, separating teacher identity and self-identity and acceptance rather than experiencing burnout.

Keywords: occupational stress, resilience strategies, burnout, novice EFL teachers

Teaching English as an International Language (TEIL): A Showcase of the Field

Şakire Erbay Çetinkaya

pp. 13 - 20   |  DOI: 10.29329/irelt.2020.347.2


As an initiative to question the Anglo-centric view of English ignoring the socio-cultural realities, the paradigm of English as an International Language (EIL) has gained space in the scholarly realm. Despite the thriving body of literature on theory, action based studies seem to be largely missing. The main rationale underlying this article is to analyse eight EIL-oriented classroom implementations from the perspectives of practitioners around the world with the aim of not only deepening the understanding of EIL but also offering useful insights for practitioners who may find its assumptions documented at theory level too elusive to implement. Findings evidence pedagogical value including a true understanding and increased awareness of the sociolinguistic realities and complexity of English, positive attitudes towards its cultural and linguistic diversity, skill enhancement, and higher motivation and confidence in using English. The review ends with pedagogical implications and suggestions for further research.

Keywords: EIL, TEIL, classroom, ELT

Turkish EFL Teachers’ Awareness of Critical Pedagogy Implementation

Melih Kırcalı

pp. 21 - 30   |  DOI: 10.29329/irelt.2020.347.3


The practice of critical pedagogy principles in EFL (English as a foreign language) classrooms in recent years has contributed a lot to the emergence of critical perspectives toward EFL instruction among the EFL teachers and this study has aimed to determine Turkish EFL teachers’ awareness of critical pedagogy implementation in the classrooms in Turkey. The awareness levels of 103 teachers working in Turkey has been measured by an adapted version of “Critical Language Pedagogy Questionnaire” which was developed and validated by Mahmoodarabi and Khodabakhsh (2015). The researcher has translated and adapted the questionnaire into Turkish, calculated the internal reliability of it using Cronbach's alpha coefficiency, and found it as a reliable instrument (17 items; α = .91). The factor analysis of the adapted version has also been conducted and three-factor solution has been recommended for the questionnaire. The findings of the study have revealed that Turkish EFL teachers are to some extent aware of how critical pedagogy principles can be implemented in EFL classrooms in Turkey. Also, a statistically significant difference between the participants holding MA degrees and BA degrees has been found when a series of Mann-Whitney U tests has been conducted for each sub-scale. On the other hand, no significant difference has been found between the self-reported scores of males and females according to the Mann-Whitney U test results.

Keywords: EFL, critical pedagogy, awareness, graduation degree

Native and Non-native EFL Teachers’ Burnout: No Isolation but Cooperation

Simge Sübaşı

pp. 31 - 43   |  DOI: 10.29329/irelt.2020.347.4


The aim of this study is twofold: to investigate the burnout levels of native and non-native ELT teachers, and to account for the reasons behind the most stressful aspects of being an ELT teacher in an EFL context.

Employing a mixed method design method, 30 ELT teachers are divided into two groups;15 native and 15 non-native. The data is collected using the Maslach Burnout Inventory Educators Survey online to find out the burnout levels within the three components- emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation (DP) and reduced personal accomplishment (RPA), and the levels of the two groups are compared to find out whether there is any difference. The procedure also includes online interview to find out the reasons for burnout. The findings revealed that there is a difference between the two groups; where there is ‘low’ burnout level of non-native teachers, the scoring indicated a ‘high’ level for native teachers. Content analysis of online interview data indicated hardness of contextual patterns, which are working, interaction and EFL teaching; in contrast,  the analysis of non-native teachers’ data indicated positive consideration of EFL teaching and having an increasing interest in post-graduate degrees in education. Implications are discussed, one of which might be the same as what the title of this research study says: no isolation, but co-operation with the two.

Keywords: Native EFL teachers, non-native EFL teachers, emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, reduced personal accomplishment